Science fiction goes this way patiently. “Cyberpunk 2020,” “Ghost in the Shell,” “Blade Runner,” “Terminator,” and “Lucy.” And for a few years, they are seriously testing the insertion of human into the chip. Ethicists and philosophers openly warn of the challenge and threat of transhumanism, an unprecedented transformation that we will gradually pass. Or maybe she’s already started?

Manning with devices is a natural consequence of the gigantic development of computer technology, especially in recent years. And more and more advanced works on today’s “IT celebrity”, ie artificial intelligence. SI, under different forms and at various stages of development, is placed in subsequent services and equipment. Companies invest enormous money in this area. In conversation with Artur Długosz, who in Intel is dealing with, among other things, SI , we are wondering what we really are dealing with and whether the use of the term “artificial intelligence” does not lead us astray. Who knows if the best idea for controlling artificial intelligence is not exactly to connect it with a human?

What is the term artificial intelligence?

I never wondered about that question. This is, in spite of appearances, a very old name – it comes from the 50s. I think it came from the fact that at some point we realized that the computer could do more than what it was programmed to do. That he can learn other things, gain knowledge and close to our understanding of experience.

The name Artificial Intelligence has been around for a long time, but a great career has been going on for several years. What happened at the technological level that it began to be so used? After all, even a gigantic increase in computing power is not enough to talk about AI.

Digital machines are based on algorithms from the beginning. Only that the algorithm leads us to the goal we know we can predict. Technology is developing so intensely that SI will come to fruition, but in my opinion, this term is being abused today.The appearance of the first computers a few decades ago created the opportunity to solve problems that could not be overcome earlier. I mean Turing’s or von Neumann’s achievements. One should look at it so that the nickname “artificial intelligence” was an expression of the enthusiasm for IT. The researchers who dealt with it then saw the great potential of computational techniques. Although we remember that computers were very simple devices at the time, they took up a lot of space and were difficult to program, so the term SI was used even more than we do today.

Maybe it was just a dream? Because it is quite a “poetic” term.

That’s right, it’s a very little scientific term. The term “peculiarity”, used in 1943 by the mathematician of Polish origin, Stanislaw Ulam, who worked with von Neumann on the Manhattan project, is already better. Ulam defines “peculiarity” as a technology feature that will be able to create solutions that are “peculiar” in the future, better than a man can. Thus, the notions of “SI” and “singularity” combine. But I’m not an advocate of the term “artificial intelligence”. I think that much better what we are dealing with, the name “enhanced intelligence”.

The term “SI” was quickly picked up by culture: comics, film, fantasy. They wondered what it was or what it could be. Asimov created his three famous robotics laws. He tested them in the collection of stories “Robots and empire”. These laws describe the robot as a slave: a robot cannot destroy a person, cannot harm him, or destroy himself. Then the fourth law was added that it could not destroy humanity either. This has evidently suggested the subordinate position of the robot as a machine that only helps the man in certain areas, and therefore he is augmented with intelligence. Let’s just say – it’s a replica that’s supposed to do the hardest work, go to distant colonies and just work for a man like a slave …

… until the rebels.

Exactly. Here is the problem, if the robot can rebel and why it would revolt.

This seems abstract. However, Elton Musk, Bill Gates, Stephen Hawking is calling for careful attention to the work of the IS. So, unmistakably, experts see a significant risk.

I’m a physicist, so I appreciate Hawking very much. This is a man who really knows how our world works. Musk created PayPal, now produces rockets for the US, so he feels great about technology and business. You can not take their words seriously. I mentioned a few fairy tales of Asimov, but on the way, we still have so-called. A paradox of paper clips – an experiment in which AI made a simple task of producing paper clips. As much as possible, the best. Artificial Intelligence created the whole system, physics, rules, everything subordinated to the production of paper clips, and moved the entire world into their production. And it destroyed everything …

… what did not want to produce the paper clips.

Yes. So narrow artificial intelligence, weak, carries a threat. I think it will be different in the case of the so-called. strong SI, but it’s not yet. In any case, the warnings of Muska or Gates need to be treated seriously, especially since there are already statements from political leaders who claim that whoever controls AI will gain control of the world… Artificial intelligence alone could not be dangerous, but human intentions could transform it into something dangerous. When I hear about SI inserting into great politics, I have an association with the arms race. We may need a Kyoto Protocol climate agreement in this area. We already have a document with 23 rules promoted by SI experts. Musk has launched OpenAI, a project where you can test new solutions, which should ensure the development of artificial intelligence. At Intel, we also realize the concept that everything is open. All our hardware and software is open, we do not do anything close. The point is to work on the SI in a transparent way.

This is the future. What is he doing, conventionally calling, SI, available now, or the one we will have in a moment? If we give up philosophy and futurism, what are practical, real applications?

Artificial Intelligence can solve problems that we would be able to deal with for a very long time by trial and error.I mean, for example, economic issues. Very specific application is new material. In order to design them, we need to involve big teams of specialists for long-term and costly work. And today we can write a program for SI, before which we will set the task and it will calculate how the necessary material should be constructed. Artificial Intelligence is used to search for missing children. In medicine, it can help in the diagnosis of cancer. SI handles fast processing of large data sets. Image analysis, medical imaging will allow for more accurate detection of symptoms, which in turn will allow for faster and better therapeutic response. Under the current conditions, we have the collective knowledge of man, millions of publications. But doctors must meet, consult, exchange information. SI Even if he does not do it better, he will immediately access the whole data and carry out the analysis from which he will draw conclusions, instantly. That is why at Intel we develop solutions and encourage different environments to research on artificial intelligence. I just really believe it, although it may sound like a cliché that SI has a chance to improve the quality of life of an individual.

You used the distinction between weak and strong artificial intelligence. If we are wondering whether it will help us in solving problems, or if we should be afraid of it, let us explain what these terms are.

The limitation is particularly important for the thread about our fear of AI. The danger of weak artificial intelligence is not that they are self-reliant. Here comes the risk that someone will write the wrong algorithm, make mistakes, introduce the wrong data. A bit like with the paperclip experiment mentioned above. Will SI then harm us consciously? Of course not. But it is a threat. Simplifying, weak artificial intelligence is a possible human error. In a strong case, however, the problem concerns our ignorance. After all, we do not know how exactly we act – this is my personal opinion. We’ve learned a lot about brains, intelligence, but not consciousness. And intuition, deja vu?Some scientists, like the late Hubert Dreyfus, question the perception of human functioning in terms of computing. They think that we make decisions based on many non-trivial factors such as intuition, intuition, experience. And in strong artificial intelligence, I see the risk that we do not know anything, and we set a goal. Imagine that we will create a machine equipped with a powerful, universal SI. It may happen that within the development of a faster-than-capable human brain, it will produce certain characteristics, such as consciousness, through which it will gain an identity. And it will start to take actions that we could not foresee.

                        The challenge that we have on the horizon is probably much closer than the risk of robotic mutiny, is the penetration of human and machine traits. There is an impact on the devices, the implantation of the chip is a matter of time, there are already such experiments. I spoke recently with the philosopher, prof. Tadeusz Gadacz, who deals with the ethical aspects of human relations and technology. The scientist believes that the so-called. Transhumanism, the cybernetic stage of “evolution” of mankind, is a key issue that we have just before us. And it can mean huge, original changes. Computers are making more and more things for us, they are lingering us, we do not have to remember, associate – they are retarded, they do not develop. According to prof. Gadacz advances us ahead, we are not psychologically ready for what is happening.

I think this is a very accurate diagnosis. Just look at children – they have trouble remembering simple information because everything can be easily checked in the network. Another thing, I do not know if anyone has done such research, but I am convinced that it would turn out to be a lot of patience. We want everything to be right away. As for transhumanism itself, it’s a topic that has been exploited recently, for example in the movie “Ghost in the Shell,” which perfectly reflects the spirit of the original comic book. But I look at this problem a little differently than the one quoted by your philosopher. Who knows if the best idea for controlling artificial intelligence is not exactly to connect it with a human?Then it would be expanded intelligence, always under the control of our intelligence and morality. That way she would not slip away.

SI as “overlay” on our “operating system”?

Then we would avoid what many fear. While this raises other great questions and dilemmas. Cyborgization of man. To what extent are, we dealing with a man yet, and in what kind of machine? These are the problems that Cyberpunk 2020 deals with. Various implant and technological support deprive the hero of humanity. There is even a special measure – at some point, you lose your free will and become a programmer.

So that is the vision in which you meet someone, such as in the smartphone displays a notification of the percentage of the person and computer. Today it’s still fantastic. By the way – do you have a favorite fictional vision of artificial intelligence?

At Intel we do things that improve people’s lives, we focus on what good SI can do for a person. At the same time, I like stories in literature or film, which in some way warn and touch the essence of humanity. I’m all about Dick, with his obsessive observation of this last issue. I am interested in visions, asking the question whether we ourselves are not something like a computer program.

It would be great if we found out that we were duplicating ourselves by constructing computers.

Or that we did it to understand ourselves. I like fantasy stories that are not just empty projections. “Terminator” is an interesting movie, but it’s a simple message, the characters do not have the dilemma there, it’s about getting something big, chasing after me and taking on different shapes. I prefer more subtle tales like “Ghost in the Shell” or “Blade Runner 2049”. Especially this second film is very interesting about the problem of artificial intelligence. In general, I will tell you, I would like people to read more fantastic …

And what could they use for fantasy, beyond the pleasure of reading?

Once a fictitious man, he dealt with serious matters and therefore was rather referred to as science fiction. Scientists often wrote it, and they put in their stories some dilemma: scientific, psychological, moral. I remember, for example, a short text entitled ” “The Last Question” by Isaac Asimov, a fantastically illustrative link between science, technology, and human destiny in the universe. The supercomputer allowed people to expand into other planets, use stars, immortality, transhumanism, became an independent human being who helped them, looked after them, but failed to answer the fundamental question of whether or not to reverse the course of entropy. For thousands of years the self-updating machine still responded that there was no data to give a clear answer. Finally, When there is nothing in the physical world and the supercomputer operates with hyperspace, it finds a solution and despite the lack of those who have asked the last question, decides to demonstrate the answer. The words “let there be light” – and so it becomes. Or like Joseph Conrad – he told a variety of exotic stories, but there was always a serious problem. About such ideas I say. The fiction literature today, unfortunately, faded, with its popularity increasing. We paid the price. And I think people should read a lot of good books from this genre because they would just learn more about the world and about themselves. The words “let there be light” – and so it becomes. Or like Joseph Conrad – he told a variety of exotic stories, but there was always a serious problem. About such ideas I say. The fiction literature today, unfortunately, faded, with its popularity increasing. We paid the price. And I think people should read a lot of good books from this genre because they would just learn more about the world and about themselves. The words “let there be light” – and so it becomes. Or like Joseph Conrad – he told a variety of exotic stories, but there was always a serious problem. About such ideas I say. The fiction literature today, unfortunately, faded, with its popularity increasing. We paid the price. And I think people should read a lot of good books from this genre because they would just learn more about the world and about themselves.